Types Of Capital Market

What Are The Types Of Capital Market


Every business needs to be capital to handle day-to-day various business functions. In this fund requirements, an organization has to be required both types of capital, such as short-term and long-term capital, according to their business model. In this short-term financial capital, companies take out loans and issue promissory notes and such securities to fulfill their short-term financial needs. Came to meet long-term financial requirements, companies obtain long-term funds by issuing shares, debentures, bonds, etc., in the capital market.

The capital market operates all kinds of fund management functionalities, and in this way, it has a broad sense. To operate all different financial functions, it is divided into different parts as different types of capital markets. We can say that capital markets are places where traders and buyers meet and trade their securities. Capital market deals with trades of stocks, bonds, and other financial assets. In this article, we are addressing different types of capital markets. But before that, understand what capital markets are.

What are capital markets?

A capital market is a marketplace that enables trade, buying, and selling securities for business organizations and individuals. A capital market deals with such types of securities whose maturity age exceeds more than one year. In short, a capital market is involved with deals of long-term securities. The government is involved in the capital market to meet financial needs to distribute long-term bonds or securities.

A capital market has a broad sense; it can not be assumed in a typical way. That can be physical, online, or both marketplaces where long-term financial instruments are traded. For example, stock markets, currency markets, and bond markets are the best examples of capital markets.

How does the capital market work?

The capital markets operated functionalities of buying and selling long-term securities. In this way, capital markets play a crucial role in helping out to make the growth of the economy. It helps to raise funds for business organizations. In this way, organizations can easily enable their different business operation and expand new projects. Capital markets provide a secure platform in various ways where financial securities and long-term debt are traded. The Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) governs the capital market in India. Private and government bankers and investors are the best examples of capital markets.

Functions of capital market

The capital market operates different types of functions that are given below;

Creates a link between borrowers and investors

It is a crucial function that is operated by the financial market. It connects borrowers and investors on a platform and serves as a between them.

Makes a formation of capital

The formation of capital makes it via the capital market. It enables funds to organizations within a time when they have actual needs.

Controlling the securities prices

Capital markets play a crucial role in regulating securities prices in the market. It helps to prevent speculative activities and observe the accuracy of all functions. The capital market makes accurate the rate of interest which is charged to the borrowers, and in this way, it stabilizes the securities prices. As a result, it helps the overgrowth of the economy.

Provides good opportunities for investors

Through the capital market, investors can meet great investment opportunities. The capital market regulates and observes all functions and involves an intermediary role between investors and borrowers. In this way, the capital market reduces the risk for investors, and compared to putting their money in a bank savings account, they can meet great investment opportunities of their money. Investors can invest in different types of securities and obtain high-interest rates with minimum risks.

Reducing transaction costs and time

As discussed above, in the capital market trading in the long-term securities. All trading process operates through an automated program system that reduces the time and cost for traders and enables them to make transaction settlement processes within the schedule.

Liquidity of cash flow

Through the capital markets, investors can easily buy and sell financial instruments that create cash flows in the economy. It also motivates promoters to produce more securities and helps borrowers gain funds for business operations. For investors, it helps them to secure investments with minimum risk and higher interest rates. As a result, it creates more cash liquidities that are important to grow the economy.

Types of Capital Market

Capital markets can be categorized according to their different functions. The basic types of capital markets are given below;

Primary market

The primary market is a platform where the promoters issue fresh securities for the first time and sell them publicly. That market is also called the New Issues Market. In that market, business organizations or companies and the government issue various types of financial security and debt and raise long-term funds. New IPOs and Debentures are the best examples of those securities. The Initial Public Offer (IPO) is a process to make a first-time offer to investors.

The issuer company follows the rules and regulations provided by SEBI and needs to file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and other securities agencies. After this approval, the company offers its securities.

Sometimes, small investors can not buy securities from the primary market. That is because the issuer company and its associate investment bankers have a short time to complete their required volume. That’s why they probably concentrate on selling all available securities to large-scale investors, who can buy maximum securities at once.

Secondary market

A secondary market is a platform where buyers and sellers trade old securities and debt on that market. It is slightly different from the primary market. Here, securities and debt traded in the market are already issued in the primary market and traded between investors and original issuers.

Investors can trade financial securities in the secondary capital market via a stock exchange. Like the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange (NSE), Etc. Overseen places are also included in secondary markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange, NASDAQ, etc. In this way, we can say there is a difference between Primary Market and Secondary Market.


Capital markets are the most essential part of the Financial industry. It enables the connects investors and buyers, including the government and individuals. We talk about the types of capital markets. The capital market is divided into the Primary Market and the Secondary Market. According to the functions of markets, the primary market is a platform where fresh securities are issued and listed for the first time. The secondary market is a platform for traders to trade securities already issued in the primary market. The advantage of these markets is that they allow capital to move from those who have had it to those who have needed it.

Also Read:

What is the Definition and Features of a Capital Market?

What is the Structure and Reforms Of the Capital Market In India?

What are the functions of commercial banks in India?

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